CSRIO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), since 1926
The foundations for the polymer banknotes known today are investigated. The basis for this was a $ 10 bill of counterfeiting from 1953. The research began for counterfeit-proof banknotes. The first prototypes were, as they are also known today as hybrids in different countries. When Dave Solomon was added, who in turn researched with paints and varnish, the idea later extended to polymer research.

See here a film of csrio. The report is about STRAND 74. This is about 3 and 7 dollars. The first prototypes of CSRIO.

click for full image    click for full image    click for full image  Angewandte Chemie International, Edition 2010, 49

CSRIO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), since 1926
This was followed by the MARK 1 (2 and 3) series. These were then made of pure polymer. Now the research has been heading, which safety elements can be embedded or applied to the polymer. See some examples of the MARK series.

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  • Book recommendation
  • Title The Plastic Banknote - From Concept to Reality
  • Editors David Solomon and Tom Spurling
  • Pages 240
  • Publisher CSIRO Publishing
  • Issue Paperback - November 2014
  • ISBN 9780643094277
  • Read a portion of the Book

  • See for technical details Innovia Security

    Bradbury Wilkinson and Company, since 1850
    Here a small story of a coworker Peter Brown from the year 2006, which communicated me a lot to the production of plastics bank notes of the BWC. Thank you my friend

    Bradbury Wilkinson: plastic banknote experiments Until its sale in April 1986 to Thomas De La Rue, Bradbury Wilkinson & Co Ltd (latterly Bradbury Wilkinson plc), was one of three security printing businesses owned by American 'Ed' Weitzen and his family. The other two were American Bank Note Corporation (ABN), based in New York, and Canadian Banknote Corporation (CBN), headquartered in Ottawa. In the late 1970s Weitzen instituted experiments in collaboration with the Du Pont chemical company. He wanted to print banknotes on a plastic substrate rather than paper and one Du Pont product, a tough plasticised paper used in packaging, called Tyvek, was deemed a suitable vehicle for trials. Three banknotes that entered circulation were printed on this material. ABN produced the first, a value for the central bank in Costa Rica. BW printed the other two: a value for Haïti's central bank and a £1 note for the Isle of Man Government. Although Du Pont tweaked the substrate specifications in various ways throughout this short programme, the overall results were considered a failure. There were severe production problems caused by three aspects of the new material: a.. Firstly the sheets did not feed into the presses satisfactorily, causing slow running and high levels of spoilage. a.. Secondly, dimensional stability was worse than conventional cotton fibre paper (banknote printing involves print registration to much closer tolerances than commercial applications and banknotes normally passes through at least three different printing machines at different times before the sheets are ready to be cut and finished). a.. Thirdly, ink adhesion was very difficult, with patches of print coming off during and after production, leaving voids on the finished note. This was the first manifestation of the perennial problem encountered when printing security offset and intaglio inks onto a plastic surface: here the ink must sit on the surface of the plastic, such material being generally impermeable. With paper, cotton or otherwise, there is a degree of permeation of the ink into the fibres of the paper, causing an indissoluble bond between the medium and the substrate. The problems did not end in production. In use, the tabloid press of the day made much of the stretching property of Tyvek. The new Isle of Man notes could be stretched to many times their original dimensions and the material did not return to its original shape. Finally, destruction was difficult. At that time, disposal of used and soiled banknotes was almost universally by incinerator. Suitable industrial strength shredders had not yet been widely introduced. When Tyvek was burned it gave off chlorine gas. Many central banks, by definition, were located in city centres and this well-known environmental hazard did not endear the new notes to issuing authorities. The project was stillborn, the Haïti and Isle of Man notes were reprinted on conventional paper and plastic notes did not recur until the NPA project twelve years later.

    Only Bradvek test score to 100 units. A painting by Sir Anthony Van Dyck with the portrait of Charles the First served as a model. The skyline of London was probably used as a cityscape around 1600 before the big city fire. This test mark was made in two versions, once with and without the ornamental print. Look here.

    A further developed Tyvek substrate was used here. Tyvek® 919 = Bradvek®

    The following bank notes were printed by BWC on Tyvek as Specimen
  • Ceylon / 2 Rupee / Pick relevant 0083
  • Ceylon / 5 Rupee / Pick relevant 0084
  • Cyprus / 250 Mils / Pick relevant 0041c
  • Gambia / 1 Dalasi / Pick relevant 0004f
  • United Arab Emirates / 5 Dirham / Pick relevant 0007a

    Silba International, Duranote, since 19--
    Its Mobil Films Division had achieved a breakthrough with a high grade polymer film based on Oriented Polypropylene aka “OPP.” This was produced in association with Canadian firm, AGRA Vadeko. The composite substrate was named DuraNote. DuraNote offered advanced counterfeit protection through being constructed of 21 ultra-thin layers of OPP film, adhesive, coatings and printable surfaces. Contemporary promotional material claimed it lasted four times longer than conventional rag paper-printed notes. It stayed crisp and did not dirty easily. These properties translated into reduced printing costs. In addition the manufacturers proposed that each note would have a clear plastic window which, along with a choice of embedded security features, would make notes difficult to copy. Several DuraNote advertising notes were produced by Silba International, Banknote Design & Security Printing, Inc. Today these appear regularly on the collectors’ market. In addition test notes were printed for 21 countries using the regular bank note printing plates for each of the countries concerned. Among them was the United States, which produced some 40,000 sheets of DuraNote currency. These have never escaped the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Presumably they have been destroyed or are buried deep in the bureau’s archive. In fact, until the present cache of Bank of Canada, Bank of England and Banco Central de Venezuela trials came to light, none of the various country test printings are known to have ended up in private hands or even been viewed by people other than those involved in the original project. Why this route has not been further developed is not known. In terms of safety Duranote has been ahead of his time. Maybe you will come back to this technology in the future. It would certainly be interesting. When Mobil merged with Exxon in 1998 the DuraNote project was abandoned and the patents and technology sold.

    click for full image Security For a Changing World    click for full image
    LEFT On page 19 of AGRA Inc.'s annual report from 1998, there are clearly three different test scores to be seen later.
    Including Charles Darwin note and a note with a drilling rig / both of Duranote. Further a note with the image of
    Sir John Everett Millais. This note comes from the Bank of England.
    RIGHT This image is taken from a brochure from the bank of england. It is possible to recognize relationships in the
    cooperation of different printers.
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    Bank of England, since 27. Juli 1694
    The dozen BoE items are all variations of the 1993 £10 issue, cf. P-386. The original designs on both sides of this note have been transposed right and left about their mid line so that Queen Elizabeth (or Charles Dickens) now appears on the left instead of the right. This was the only way the BoE would allow samples of the trial printings to be released to Mobil. All lack serial numbers. The trials include eight singletons and four uncut vertical sheets of two, three or four notes. The singletons include one with a double foil security strip, one on a high opacity clay+TiO2 film, and five fully printed (and archivally hand-stamped) dated November or March 1994. The uncut sheets vary as to the presence or absence of undertints, and the type of filler used in the film; either clay+TiO2 or a clay alone. Two of the sheets of four are front uniface printings lacking underprints.